NOTES & REFERENCES

Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

 

Chapter 1 Early Days and Origins

1*1 The Liverpool Constituency of West Derby

1*2 "Fifty Fighting Years", an anonymous twenty four page pamphlet published by The Economic League (Central Council) in 1969. Although written 50 years after the event, its author was probably John Baker White who was Director of the League from 1926 until the Second World War. The League's own records were not made available and the historian Arthur McIvor was told that most of the early records had been destroyed.

1*3 The Name: If there has been some confusion about the way in which the Economic League emerged from this soup of Radical Right, anti-Labour groupings then the League's early Annual Reports help to clarify the situation. The Economic League's fifth Annual Review of 1925 clearly states that the Economic League was originally called National Propaganda, and the Independent Labour Party as early as 1926 traced the League Back to the "National Propaganda Committee" which Barbara Lee Farr (see next note) has identified as the National Propaganda Committee of the British Commonwealth Union. G C Webber, "Ideology of the British Right 1918-19", Groom Helm, 1986, tells us that this was (like the League) run by Hall. The fifth Annual Report announced its formal change of name to the "Central Council of the Economic Leagues" and this in turn was shortened to "The Economic League (Central Council)" in 1927.

1*4 Barbara Lee Farr, Unpublished PhD Thesis, "The Development and Impact of Right-wing Politics in England 1903-32", University of Illinois, 1976. Quoted in Lobster #11 and referred to by Webber.

1*5 J A Turner, "The British Commonwealth Union and the General Election of 1918", English Historical Review, July 1978. Much of the following account is drawn from this, including the list of MPs.

1*6 Men like T R Nugent

1*7 Minutes of the BCU Council, quoted in Turner

1*8 EEF Minute Book 13 Quoted in Turner

1*9 E Hallas, Sir R Horne, A R Jephcott, P Lloyd Graeme, E Manville, R Morris, N J Moore, J Norton Griffiths, Sir H Rodgers, T C Worsfold, G E W Bowyer, Sir Harry Brittain, P Hurd , W G H Gritten, J A Seddon, A W Smithers, Sir P Goff, A B Betterton. Only six failed to be elected: A E Beck, A W Maconochie, J B Cronin, C Hughes, T D Pilcher, Cristabel Pankhurst

1*10 Turner

1*11 Turner, p529. Webber however has suggested that the BCU at some stage changed its name to the British Empire Union before it was ultimately absorbed by the Empire Industries Association. In this Webber is mistaken, the relationship between the BCU and BEU was complicated as we shall see.

1*12 Peter Wright, "Spycatcher", Hienneman Australia, 1987.

1*13 See Christopher Andrew, "Secret Service", Heinemann 1985, p146 - but widely quoted elsewhere

1*14 Patrick Beesley, "Room 40", OUP, 1982 - pp185

1*15 Beesley

1*16 Andrew and Beesley both offer detailed accounts of Hall's Irish adventures and role in the capture of Sir Roger Casement. They also deal in depth with the Zimmerman Telegram which brought America into the War and earned Hall his knighthood. See also Admiral Sir William James, "The Eyes of the Navy", Methuen 1955, and H. Montgomery Hyde "The trial of Roger Casement".

1*17 Adm 1/8541/279, cited by A B Carew, "The Lower Decks of the Royal Navy 1900-39", Manchester University Press, 1981.

1*18 Andrew pp468 & 636. See also Beesley.

1*19 Andrew

1*20 Andrew

1*21 Andrew pp333-5 & pp 405-6. See also Beesley

1*22 Information from contemporary telephone directories and Whitaker's Almanacs and an advert in "An Eight Hours Day - the case against trade union and legislative interference", by W. J. Shaxby, The Liberty Review Publishing Co Ltd, 1898.

1*23 Webber p154

1*24 "Fifty Fighting Years"

1*25 "Lobster"#12 and Arthur McIvor

1*26 "Fifty Fighting Years"

1*27 "Fifty Fighting Years"

 

Chapter 2 The Diehards' Hidden Hand

2*1 John Stubbs, "The Impact of the Great War on the Conservatives" in "The Politics of Reappraisal 1918-1939".

2*2 It was founded by Ernest Pollock and Basil Peto but according to Stubbs "its moving spirit was W.A.S.Hewins - Unionist MP for Hereford since 1912....and since 1903 the secretary of the Tariff Commission - the research and propaganda arm of Joseph Chamberlain's tariff reform campaign" a landowner's quote from Stubbs.

2*3 Stubbs p26 citing the Morning Post 21/1/16, National Review. Feb. 1916 and Outlook 15/1/16.

2*4 Webber p163

2*5 G.R.Searle "Corruption in British Politics", OUP, 1987, pp311.321-2. Searle suggests the UWC was established in the Lords by Salisbury in May 1917. See also Ramsden pp114-115.

2*6 Webber p163

2*7 Robert Graves & Alan Hodge "The Long Weekend - a Social History of Great Britain 1918-1939", first published 1940, reprinted by Hutchison, 1985.

2*8 Webber pp21

2*9 Webber pp21-22

2*10 Maurice Cowling, "The Impact of Labour", Cambridge University Press, 1975. pp86-87

2*11 Webber pp21

2*12 Webber pp21-22

2*13 Searle pp359-61

2*14 Ramsden pp197

2*15 Cowling p267

2*16 See Cowling p399

2*17 There has been some confusion as to whether the British Commonwealth Union and British Empire Union were the same organisation. Webber suggests that the BEU was the BCU renamed, and at least one reference ("Lobster"#12) to the British Empire Union suggests it was formed in 1915, which would seem to corroborate Webber's suggestion that it was the BCU renamed. It is also, like the BCU, said to have had an "industrial peace department" to "campaign against dangers of revolution and communism" ("Lobster"#12).

2*18 Panikos Panayi, "The British Empire Union in the First World War" in "The Politics of marginality", edited by Tony Kushner and Kenneth Lunn, Frank Cass, 1990.

2*19 Turner

2*20 Ron Bean

2*21 John Hope

2*22 Maurice Cowling "The Impact of Labour" 1971 (p75 referring to a letter from J R P Newman to St Loe Strachey, 11/6/21)

2*23 According to Panayi in 1975 it came "under the control of a group of directors who used its name for purely business purposes"!

2*24 Webber p 29 and 32

2*25 Established in 1919 by H H Beamish and including also Lord Sydenham

 

Chapter 3 John Baker White, Sir George Makgill & Section D

3*1 His estate was valued at 483,142.70, the majority of which went to his son Robin and daughter Jennifer Treherne-Thomas. However a bequest was also made to one Barbara Bell, of Brighton, "in recognition of the long service she has given to the cause we both have at heart.

3*2 John Baker White, "True Blue" Frederick Muller, 1970 p122

3*3 "True Blue", p123

3*4 Webster's anti socialist intelligence gathering was impressive. Her book "The Socialist Network" is widely collected by socialist historians, not least of which for a large fold out diagram of the inter connections between left wing groups.

3*5 Lobster, Bernard Porter, "Plots and Paranoia", and John Hope

3*6 For a profile of Makgill see Mike Hughes in "Lobster 28" [Original Dorril].

3*7 See also Porter, Hope

3*8 See Andrew, "Secret Service", pp 458, 470 and 469. For a significantly different account see Compton Mackenzie's commentary in Wilfred MacCartney's "Walls Have Mouths", Left Book Club, 1936

3*9 "The Great Beast", Julian Symmonds, Granada 1973

3*10 "Its gone for Good" p129

3*11 "Its Gone for Good" p131

 

Chapter 4 The Economic League and the General Strike

4*1 Andrew, pp437

4*2 "People", 7/12/24 quoted in ILP "Notes for Speakers"

4*3 ILP

4*4 Tom Jones, "Whitehall Diary" ed K. Middlemas, London 1969, volii p12. Quoted in Margaret Morris, "The General Strike", Penguin 1976

4*5 Royal Commission on the Coal Industry (1925, Vol 2(b), minutes of evidence, p934) quoted in Morris, p137

4*6 See T.Jones "Whitehall Diary" iip40, quoted in Morris, p259

4*7 See Morris p327

4*8 "What is the Economic League" it was probably the first published pamphlet about the League

4*9 LRD pamphlet, op cit

4*10 G.W.McDonald "The Role of British Industry in 1926" In Morris, p299

4*11 Farman, "The General Strike", 1972, p65 quoting James Rhodes James' "Memoirs of a conservative: J C C Davidson's Memoirs and Papers 1910-37"

4*12 The original idea had its roots in an investigation by Blinker Hall into the way in which the Government responded to this sort of emergency, instigated by Lloyd George. See also Keith Jeffrey and Peter Hennessey, "States of Emergency", Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1983

4*13 See Jeffery and Hennessey

4*14 Jeffery and Hennessey

4*15 Farman p150

4*16 Margaret Morris

4*17 "True Blue"

4*18 "True Blue"

4*19 According to "Fifty Fighting Years" they were "mobile, self contained units consisting of two speaker/literature distributors carrying their own stock of leaflets and a portable platform"

4*20 "Fifty Fighting Years"

 

Chapter 5 Fellow Travellers of Fascism

5*1 John Hope citing Richard Thurlow, "Fascism in Britain - aHistory 1918-1985", Basil Blackwell 1987

5*2 John Hope, Lobster 22, citing also W. J. West "Truth Betrayed", Duckworth, 1987

5*3 Maurice Cowling, "The impact of Hitler", Cambridge University Press, 1975

5*4 Douglas Jerrold, "Georgian Adventures", reprinted the following year by the Right Book Club

5*5 Quoted in Simon Haxey, "Tory MP", Left Book Club, 1939, p235

 

Chapter 6 The Economic League Goes to War

6*1 Carew

6*2 Tom Cullen, "Maundy Gregory - Purveyor of Honours", Bodley Head

6*3 Sir Samuel Hoare, Foreign Secretary June 1935 - May 1937, Home Secretary May 1937 - September 1939

6*4 The relationship between SIS and the various private and quasi private networks was ambiguous. Vansittart's network was very close but Churchill's network also had its connections.

6*5 The Honorary Secretary was Chev. T Sambuccetti, Morley House, 320 Regent Street

6*6 Ernest Tennat, "True Account", 1957

6*7 Also present as guest of honour in 1936 were Sir Thomas Moore, Arnold Wilson, Admiral Sueter, Lord Apsley and Sir Frank Sanderson.

6*8 See David Caesarini, Stella Yarrow and Panikos Panayi in "The Politics of Marginality", ed Tony Kushner and Kenneth Lunn, Frank Cass, 1990

6*9 Richard Griffiths "Fellow Travellers of the Far Right", Constable, 1980

6*10 Eric Hobsbawm, Volume 3 of the Pelican History of Britain, 1969, p163

6*11 John Baker White, "It's gone for good"

6*12 See Anthony Read and David Fisher, "Colonel Z", Hodder and Stoughton, 1984.

6*13 Andrew p502

6*14 Churchill also had access to secret information by virtue of his membership of sub committee of the Committee for Imperial Defence.

6*15 It seems Ellis had himself been passing on information to Nazi Intelligence, includin MI6's battle order, prior to the outbreak of the Second World War (see Nigel West, "A matter of Trust", Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1982) .

6*16 Apart from fleeting references in a small number of general books, the references in William Stevenson "A Man Called Intrepid", Macmillan, 1976 and Eugene Spiers "Focus" (1963) the most substantial study of the Focus is in David Irving's "Churchill's War", and the Companion Volume V to Martin Gilbert's biography of Churchill. As with much of Irving's work the problem lies not with the quality of the research as with the analysis and interpretation, and the unpleasant insinuations and style. Unfortunately because the Focus plays a central role in his argument that the Second World War was a Jewish conspiracy he is at his most unpleasant when writing about the Focus group. Irving has in fact called his own neo-nazi think tank the "Focus Policy Group", and this if nothing else is a reason for an urgently needed and comprehensive study of Churchill's group. A slightly more detailed account of The Focus, by myself, is to be found in "Lobster 25".

6*17 Ellic Howe, "The Black Game", Michael Joseph, 1982. Bickham Sweet-Escort "Baker Street Irregular", 1971, Julian Amery "Approach March", 1973, Kim Philby "My Secret War",1968.

6*18 "German Propaganda in Britain", Economic League, July 1939

6*19 Yorkshire Post 4/4/38

6*20 30/11/39

6*21 See Andrew. The history of SOE has been more chronicled than any other section of the British secret state.

 

Chapter 7 Peace and Cold War

7*1 Reproduced in the LRD Pamphlet "The Federation of British Industries", 1950

7*2 Aims of Industry, Annual Report 1948

7*3 Others less prominent members of the Central Council included: Harry Douglas Leather ("retired", Ilkley), Ernest Edward R. Kilner (listed on the company records as a manufacturer from Mirfield, West Yorkshire), Alderman Edmund G Underwood ("retired", Nottingham), Colonel Maurice B Buchanan, Lt Colonel T Harry G Stevens, Alderman Charles Terry (Redditch, manufacturer), Sir Harold West (Sheffield Manufacturer), John Horsley Gresham (Co. Director from Timperley), William Joseph Clarke (Company Chairman), Adolph Vines, H Russell Allday, Bertram James Firkins,Capt. William Appleby, Alfred J Stanyard (Co. secretary of Yarrow & Co., Glasgow).

7*4 The anti-trade union blacklist was probably seen by manufacturing subscribers as particularly valuable because the ideological implosion of party politics was accompanied by a very noticeable increase in industrial action. In 1952 1,792,000 hours of production were lost through industrial action. This rose to 2,083,000 hours in 1956, and 3,024,000 in 1960. In 1965, after a year of Labour government, the figure had risen to 2,925,000.

 

Chapter 8 The Wilson Years

8*1 See Ellic Howe

8*2 Harold Wilson, "The War on World Poverty - An appeal to the Conscience of Mankind", Gollanz, 1953

8*3 Final words of the epilogue to the second edition, June 1953

8*4 The Monday Club's first pamphlet, by John Biggs-Davidson explicit stated its connections and commitment to Diehardism

8*5 According to Edward Luttwak, "Coup D'Etat, Penguin, 1968, The third essential characteristic of the cout d'etat is that it is illegal or unconstitutional, although given the incomplete and ambiguous and flexible nature of both the British Constitution and that of the Conservative Party it is doubtful if the notion of illegality is meaningful in relation to either state or party"

8*6 Jeffrey and Hennesey, p88

8*7 Volume III of the Army Land Operations Manual, see Johnathan Bloch and Patrick Fitzgerald, "British Intelligence and Covert action", Dublin, 1983

8*8 Michael Farrell, "Northern Ireland The Orange State", Pluto Press, 1980.

8*9 Lord Carver, reported in the Guardian, 5/3/80

8*10 Peter Wright, p359

8*11 "Spycatcher", p367

8*12 Mark Hollingsworth and Richard Norton-Taylor, "Blacklist: The Inside Story of Political Vetting", Hogarth, 1988

8*13 Having reviewed the case there is little doubt that there was some sort of conspiracy against the architect John Poulson, and his downfall cannot simply be put down to investigative journalism nailing municipal corruption. But it is still open to question whether it was a concerted attempt to discredit the social democrats who had held power at a local and national level since the 1950's. The original bankruptcy was precipitated byPoulson's sister-in-law's husband - Lord King - who has since become a key figure in the Radical Right. If anything the scandal was more damaging to Heath than to Wilson. Interestingly, though no one has yet taken it seriously, quixotic T.Dan Smith himself has always maintained that MI5 were covertly involved in engineering the scandal. John Poulson's unpublished autiobiography, "The Price", was particularly interesting.

8*14 Colin Wallace's notes for "Clockwork Orange 2", Paul Foot, "Who Framed Colin Wallace", Macmillan, 1989, and Lobster #13

8*15 John Nott, former Thatcher minister, interviewed on BBC TV's "Panorama", celebrating Thatcher as the longest reigning British premier of the 20th century.

8*16 Nicholas Whapshot and George Brock, "Thatcher", Macdonald, 1983

8*17 Cecil Turner (editor), "The Case for Free Enterprise", Bachman & Turner 1979.

 

Chapter 9 Spies at Work

9*1 Guardian 28/6/89, referenced in Stephen Dorril and Robin Ramsay, "Smear", Harper Collins, 1991

9*2 "Evening News", 22/6/66

9*3 Christopher Dobson and Ronald Payne, "Dictionary of Espionage", Harrap, 1984

9*4 12/1/61

9*5 "The Guardian", 30/1/64

9*6 "Observer" 19/10/69

9*7 "Building Design" 8/5/70

9*8 "Sunday Times" 11/4/74, "Time Out" May 1974, "The Guardian" 11/5/74

9*9 "The Guardian" 23/4/77

9*10 "The Guardian 28/6/78, 29/6/78

9*11 Broadcast live: 10/9/88

9*12 Broadcast on 16/6/87

9*13 I was told by a source within the League that while Defence Companies use C Branch, MI5's post office box - PO Box 500 - to vet names this gave the companies only a "yes" or "no" answer while the League would provide the company with a clue as to why a person had failed the vetting procedure. This might be havebeen regarded as important if the person was already employed and about to be transferred or promoted to secret work.

9*14 The published literature is unclear whether FX was a super section, or its head.

9*15 30/5/84

9*16 The membership of the Committee was at first unknown. The CFB survives today, run by David Hart and some of the brighter members of the now disbanded Federation of Conservative Students. Hart operates from a presidential office near Buckingham Palace.

 

Chapter 10 The Need for a Change of Direction

10*1 19/12/87

10*2 The quotes from Noar are all taken from his Letter to the League's company secretary M.F.J. Barnes, 10th January 1986 sent prior to his interview on 15th January

10*3 Richard Brett speaking on BBC Television's programme "Watchdog"

10*4 "The Boys on the Blacklist" Transmitted 16/2/87, "The Secret Life of Ned Walsh", 1/2/88 and "The Secrets of Wine Office Court" 8/2/88

10*5 Resolution dated 14th December, taken from the Minutes of an Additional Meeting of the Policy & Finance Committee, 26th January 1988

 

Chapter 11 The Fall

11*1 For the conclusions of the Select committee's investigation see the Employment Committee Second Report "Recruitment Practices", Session 1990-91, ISBN 0 10 273691 X

11*2 "Venue" no 219, 28th September-12th October 1990

11*3 The Select Committee's full recommendation reads:

"Under the Consumer Credit Act 1974, any consumer denied credit can obtain the name of any credit reference agency consulted, and can thereafter obtain details of the information held about them. WE BELIEVE THE SAME SHOULD BE TRUE OF INFORMATION ABOUT POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES SUPPLIED TO THE EMPLOYER BY ORGANISATIONS KEEPING SUCH INFORMATION; IF THE POTENTIAL EMPLOYEE IS REFUSED EMPLOYMENT THE INFORMATION SHOULD BE PASSED ON TO THE EMPLOYEE; INDEED IT SHOULD BE PUT TO THE EMPLOYEE SO AS TO PROVIDE A CHANCE FOR THE EMPLOYEE TO REFUTE IT.

"WE ALSO RECOMMEND THAT LEGISLATION SHOULD PROVIDE THAT, WITH THEEXCEPTION OF PREVIOUS EMPLOYERS PROVIDING REFERENCES, ALL ORGANISATIONS SUPPLYING INFORMATION ABOUT POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES SHOULD BE SUBJECT TO LICENSING AND TO A CODE OF PRACTICE, PERHAPS SIMILAR TO THE LICENSING SYSTEM FOR EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES UNDER THE EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES ACT 1973.

"We believe that the recommendations we have made would go some way to lessening the disadvantages faced by those who apply for jobs at companies using the services of organisations who provide information about them."

11*4 "Daily Mirror September 25th - October 3rd 1991. In Scotland the "Daily Record" for the same period used the same sources for its expose of the League's blacklist.

 

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

Economic League Documents

PUBLISHED

In fact very few Economic League Documents, including the annual reports, were publicly available to non-subscribers or their employees, there is however a distinction to be drawn between these documents and the internal "leaked" documents I have had access to. This is by no means a complete list of all the published documents of which I have copies.

"Annual Reports", various years. Not available through libraries, but Labour Research, the Labour History Museum and TUC Library have many copies.

Pamphlets:

"The Facts about Industry", Economic League, early 1930's

"The Economic League - Aims, Methods and Achievements", Economic League, 1933

"National Hunger March - Why they are marching", Economic League 1934

"German Propaganda in Britain", Economic League, July 1939

"Fifty Fighting Years", Economic League, 1967

"Companies Under Attack-Political Disruption in Industry", Economic League, 1986

"Revolutionaries Today", Economic League, a nine part series commencing in 1986

"The Revolution Lives - a guide to Marxist Organisations in Britain", Economic League, 1991

Books:

"The Facts of the case", The Economic Study Club, 1921

Magazines:

"Two Minute News Review", Monthly

"Analysis - A Review of Current Issues" monthly from November 1990

UNPUBLISHED

I had access to a very large number of unpublished internal documents including:

North West Economic League blacklist, 1985

Minutes of the Research Group of the Economic League, 7th December 1988.

Lists of subscribers and companies using the solicitors Barnes & Co to hide donations

Numerous lists of Regional Council members

Minutes of the Director General's Advisory Committee, 25th August 1987

Assorted minutes of Central Council and Policy and Finance Committee

Letters circulated to subscribers following exposes of the blacklist in the media

Articles, and Pamphlets Specifically about the League

This list does not include the numerous newspaper and magazine articles about the League.

Mark Hollingsworth

Mark Hollingsworth and Richard Norton-Taylor, "Blacklist: The Inside Story of Political Vetting", Hogarth, 1988

Mark Hollingsworth and Charles Tremayne, "The Economic League", The Silent Macarthyism, Liberty, 1989

Labour Research Department

"What is the Economic League?", 1937

"A subversive Guide to the Economic League", 1969

Independent Labour Party Information Committee

"The Economic League at Work - Capitalist Propaganda Exposed", September 1926

State Research Bulletin

"Bulletin No. 7", September 1978

Arthur McIvor

"'A Crusade for Capitalism': The Economic League 1919-39", Journal of Contemporary History, Vol 23, 1988

"The Economic League 1919-39" Research Working Paper, Polytechnic of Central London, 1983

"Combating the Left: Victimisation and Anti-Labour Activities on Clydeside, 1900-1939", Arthur McIvor and Hugh Patterson - in R. Duncan and A McIvor (eds), Militant Workers, John Donald

John Baker White

"Red Russia Arms", Burrup Mathieson, 1932

"The Innocents' Clubs" (pamphlet), John Baker White, 1935

"Dover Nurenberg Return", Burrup Mathieson, 1937

"The Red Network", International Anti-Communist Entente, 1939

"Its gone for Good", Vacher & Sons, 1941

"A Soldier Dares to Think", Vacher, 1942

"Nationalisation: Chaos or Cure?", Forum Books, 1946

"The Soviet Spy System", Falcon Press, 1948

"The Big Lie", Evans Bros, 1955

"Pattern for Conquest [On Russian intrigue and espionage in Europe since 1945]", Robert Hale, 1956

"Sabotage is Suspected", Evans Bros, 1957

"True Blue", Frederick Muller, 1970

General

Julian Amery "Approach March", 1973

Christopher Andrew, "Secret Service", Heinemann, 1985

Patrick Beesley, "Room 40", OUP, 1982

Ron Bean, "Liverpool Shipping Employers and the Anti-Bolshevik Activities of J.M.Hughs", Bulletin of the Society for the Study of Labour History, No 34, Spring 1977.

A B Carew, "The Lower Decks of the Royal Navy 1900-39", Manchester University Press, 1981

Maurice Cowling, "The Impact of Labour", Cambridge University Press, 1975; "The impact of Hitler", Cambridge University Press, 1975

Tom Cullen, "Maundy Gregory - Purveyor of Honours", Bodley Head

Stephen Dorril and Robin Ramsay, "Smear", Harper Collins, 1991

Barbara Lee Farr, Unpublished PhD Thesis, "The Development and Impact of Right-wing Politics in England 1903-32", University of Illinois, 1976

Paul Foot, "Who Framed Colin Wallace", Macmillan, 1989

Martin Gilbert's Companion Volume V to his biography of Churchill.

Richard Griffiths "Fellow Travellers of the Far Right", Constable, 1980

Robert Graves & Alan Hodge "The Long Weekend - a Social History of Great Britain 1918-1939", first published 1940, reprinted by Hutchison, 1985

Simon Haxey, "Tory MP",

Eric Hobsbawm, Volume 3 of the Pelican History of Britain, 1969

John Hope, "Fascism, the Security Service and the Curious Careers of Maxwell Knight and James McGuirk Hughes", Lobster #22; "British Fascism and the State 1917-1927: a re-examination of the documentary evidence", Labour History Review, Vol 57, No3, Winter 1992

Ellic Howe, "The Black Game", Michael Joseph, 1982

Mike Hughes, "Churchill and The Focus", Lobster 25, June 1993, Profiles of Blinker Hall, Lobster 26 and George Makgill, Lobster 28, [Original Dorril's],

H. Montgomery Hyde "The trial of Roger Casement", 1960

David Irving's "Churchill's War"

Admiral Sir William James, "The Eyes of the Navy", Methuen 1955, "The Sky Was Always Blue", Methuen 1951

Keith Jeffrey and Peter Hennessey, "States of Emergency", Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1983

Douglas Jerrold, "Georgian Adventures", reprinted the following year by the Right Book Club

Tom Jones, "Whitehall Diary" ed K. Middlemas, London 1969

Tony Kushner and Kenneth Lunn (editors) ,"The Politics of Marginality", Frank Cass, 1990

David Leigh, "The Wilson Plot", Heineman, 1988

Lobster #11, #12, #22, #26,#28. Lobster was, until issue #26, Robin Ramsay and Stephen Dorril. Confusingly there are now two Lobsters produced each bearing the same number! Dorril Lobsters are available from Stephen Dorril at 135 School Street, Holmfirth West Yorkshire, HD7 2YB, Telephone 0484 681388. Ramsay Lobsters are available from Robin Ramsay at 214 Westbourne Avenue, Hull HU5 3JB, Telephone 0482 447558. I have contributed to the Dorril Lobster which means that Robin Ramsay no longer talks to me. However he was exceptionally supportive during the writing of this book, and read an earlier draft for me and made invaluable suggestions. I would therefore like to record my sincere thanks for his support. Both Steve and Robin can supply back copies of the jointly produced issues.

Labour Research Department, "The Federation of British Industries", 1950

Edward Luttwak, "Coup D'Etat, Penguin, 1968

Wilfred MacCartney, "Walls Have Mouths", Left Book Club, 1936

Margaret Morris, "The General Strike", Penguin 1976

Panikos Panayi, "The British Empire Union in the First World War" in "The Politics of marginality", edited by Tony Kushner and Kenneth Lunn, Frank Cass, 1990

Kim Philby "My Secret War", 1968

Bernard Porter, "Plots and Paranoia"

Anthony Read and David Fisher, "Colonel Z", Hodder and Stoughton, 1984

G.R.Searle "Corruption in British Politics", OUP, 1987

William Stevenson "A Man Called Intrepid", Macmillan, 1976

Eugene Spiers "Focus" (1963)

John Stubbs, "The Impact of the Great War on the Conservatives" in "The Politics of Reappraisal 1918-1939"

Bickham Sweet-Escort "Baker Street Irregular", 1971

Julian Symmonds, "The Great Beast", Granada, 1973

Sir Basil Thomson, "Queer People", Hodder & Stoughton, 1922 and "The Scene Changes", Collins 1939

Richard Thurlow, "Fascism in Britain - a History 1918-1985", Basil Blackwell 1987

Cecil Turner (editor), "The Case for Free Enterprise", Bachman & Turner, 1979

J A Turner, "The British Commonwealth Union and the General Election of 1918", English Historical Review, July 1978

G C Webber, "Ideology of the British Right 1918-19", Groom Helm, 1986

Nesta Webster, "The Socialist Network"

Peter Wright, "Spycatcher", Hienneman Australia, 1987.

W. J. West "Truth Betrayed", Duckworth, 1987

Nigel West, "A matter of Trust", Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1982

Nicholas Whapshot and George Brock, "Thatcher", Macdonald, 1983

Harold Wilson, "The War on World Poverty - An appeal to the Conscience of Mankind", Gollanz, 1953


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